# Buffers

## Background

As shortly explained in the section about how to calculate pH in a solution of dissolved NaHCO3 abuffer has the capability of keeping pH within a certain and narrow range even if an excessof hydrogen ions H+ or hydroxide ions OH- are added.

In this particular page I will elaborate a bit on why buffers actually have the capabilities of resistingchanges in pH when acid or base is added.

Before I move on I suggest you read the pdf documents showing how equilibriums are calculated and howpH in a NaHCO3 solution is calculated. Links are found in the margin to the left. Also notice that this webpagealso has its own pdf version.

## NaHCO3 considered

Consider the solution mentioned in the NaHCO3 section made up of 0.1 M NaHCO3.We can show that unlikepure water this solution of sodium bicarbonate is extremely good at resisting pH changes when HCl is added.

As is seen in this excel spreadsheet at the end of row 16, the pH in the solution is 8.31. Now let's figure outwhat happens when 0.0005 mole HCl is added (volume change is neglected).

This starts at row 20 in the excel document. In row 29it is seen that the pH should decrease to approximately pH = 8.21 which is not much.

Had it been a solution ofpure water the pH would have dropped to -LOG10(0.0005) = 3.3.

## Web resources

Ions and compounds Atoms are made up of neutrons that are neutral and have no charge, protons with a positive charge andelectrons with a negative charge.An ion is an entity or a group of atoms with a positive or negative charge such as the positively charged hydrogen ion H+ and thenegatively charged nitrate ion NO3-. Negatively charged ions are also...

An introduction to Ionic Strength BackgroundTo quantify the effect of inter-ionic interactions, such as molecular attraction and repelling, one has to have a `parameter` describing themagnitude of these forces and how they alter the way certain calculation are done.Topic: Equilibriums The pH s...

pH strips Background Substances with the property to change color when they come into contact with an either acidic or basicsolution are called pH indicators. This is used in pH strips that changes color when they come into contactwith hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-). Usually, pH strips are b...

Gases - the ideal gas law explained Chemical compounds in aqueous solutions are fairly easy to handle as their quantities can either be expressed in weight such as grams or kilos, moles perliter (molarity) or moles per kg (molality).Topic: pKa & Ka The basics ...