PDF library

Note: Discussions about the pdf documents are found in the 'Help & Discussions' section.

Inorganic chemistry subjects:

Equilibriums 1 : A tutorial about how [CO2], [HCO3-] and[CO32-] are calculated from Total Inorganic Carbon.
The pdf is here

Ionic Strength 1 : An introduction about Ionic Strength with a simple calculation using H+ as an example.
The pdf is here

pKa and Ka : An introduction to the concept of Ka and pKa values -their definition, how they are used and a simple example.
The pdf is here

NaHCO3 dissolved : An introduction to what happens to pH when NaHCO3 dissolves.This site included excel spreadsheets showing the calculations.
The pdf is here

Buffers : A short introduction to buffers.
The pdf is here

Answers to questions in the Help & Discussion section or blog:

A question about adding the effect on pH by adding hydrochloride acid (HCl) to an acetate buffer isanswered here.

pdf's pending

An explanation on how the concentration of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), HSO4- and sulfate (SO42-) is calculatedis found here.

Chemistry resources:

If you have some chemistry notes you would like to share I will be happy to post them here.

pH strips Background Substances with the property to change color when they come into contact with an either acidic or basicsolution are called pH indicators. This is used in pH strips that changes color when they come into contactwith hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-). Usually, pH strips are b...

An introduction to Ionic Strength BackgroundTo quantify the effect of inter-ionic interactions, such as molecular attraction and repelling, one has to have a `parameter` describing themagnitude of these forces and how they alter the way certain calculation are done.Topic: Equilibriums The pH s...

NaHCO3 dissolved in water - how is pH calculated? Background about buffersA buffer is a solution that has the ability to keep pH within a certain and narrow range: even if an excessof hydrogen ions (H+) is applied to the solution. In other words:buffers resist changes in pH whenreasonable amount of either H+ or OH- is added to the buffer solution.Th...

pH meter pH strips BackgroundpH meters have been used since 1936 when they were invented by the Danish company Radiometer.In contrast to many other measuring devices pH meters do not measure concentrations, rather they measure activities. Tobe more specific the pH meter does not measure the concentration of hydrogen ions.pH meters are used to ...