PDF library

Note: Discussions about the pdf documents are found in the 'Help & Discussions' section.

Inorganic chemistry subjects:


Equilibriums 1 : A tutorial about how [CO2], [HCO3-] and[CO32-] are calculated from Total Inorganic Carbon.
The pdf is here


Ionic Strength 1 : An introduction about Ionic Strength with a simple calculation using H+ as an example.
The pdf is here


pKa and Ka : An introduction to the concept of Ka and pKa values -their definition, how they are used and a simple example.
The pdf is here


NaHCO3 dissolved : An introduction to what happens to pH when NaHCO3 dissolves.This site included excel spreadsheets showing the calculations.
The pdf is here


Buffers : A short introduction to buffers.
The pdf is here

Answers to questions in the Help & Discussion section or blog:


A question about adding the effect on pH by adding hydrochloride acid (HCl) to an acetate buffer isanswered here.


pdf's pending


An explanation on how the concentration of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), HSO4- and sulfate (SO42-) is calculatedis found here.


Chemistry resources:

If you have some chemistry notes you would like to share I will be happy to post them here.


NaHCO3 dissolved in water - how is pH calculated? Background about buffersA buffer is a solution that has the ability to keep pH within a certain and narrow range: even if an excessof hydrogen ions (H+) is applied to the solution. In other words:buffers resist changes in pH whenreasonable amount of either H+ or OH- is added to the buffer solution.Th...

Question about acetate buffer This is the long and computational answer to Debra's question about what happens when 100 mmol of HCl ispoured into an 100 ml acetate buffer (0.2 M) 06.07.2019 Author: Jim ...

Acids and bases - Broensted-Lowry definition A more fundamental definition of acids and bases than the one provided on the index page was given by the Danish chemists Johannes Broensted.The definitions are:A Broensted acid is a proton doner.A Broensted base is a proton acceptor.The English chemist, Thomas Lowry, proposed exactly the same at roug...

Gases - the ideal gas law explained Chemical compounds in aqueous solutions are fairly easy to handle as their quantities can either be expressed in weight such as grams or kilos, moles perliter (molarity) or moles per kg (molality).Topic: pKa & Ka The basics ...