PDF library

Note: Discussions about the pdf documents are found in the 'Help & Discussions' section.

Inorganic chemistry subjects:


Equilibriums 1 : A tutorial about how [CO2], [HCO3-] and[CO32-] are calculated from Total Inorganic Carbon.
The pdf is here


Ionic Strength 1 : An introduction about Ionic Strength with a simple calculation using H+ as an example.
The pdf is here


pKa and Ka : An introduction to the concept of Ka and pKa values -their definition, how they are used and a simple example.
The pdf is here


NaHCO3 dissolved : An introduction to what happens to pH when NaHCO3 dissolves.This site included excel spreadsheets showing the calculations.
The pdf is here


Buffers : A short introduction to buffers.
The pdf is here

Answers to questions in the Help & Discussion section or blog:


A question about adding the effect on pH by adding hydrochloride acid (HCl) to an acetate buffer isanswered here.


pdf's pending


An explanation on how the concentration of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), HSO4- and sulfate (SO42-) is calculatedis found here.


Chemistry resources:

If you have some chemistry notes you would like to share I will be happy to post them here.


Buffers BackgroundAs shortly explained in the section about how to calculate pH in a solution of dissolved NaHCO3 abuffer has the capability of keeping pH within a certain and narrow range even if an excessof hydrogen ions H+ or hydroxide ions OH- are added.In this particular page I will elaborate a bit on why buffers actually have the capabilities ...

pH strips Background Substances with the property to change color when they come into contact with an either acidic or basicsolution are called pH indicators. This is used in pH strips that changes color when they come into contactwith hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-). Usually, pH strips are b...

Ions and compounds Atoms are made up of neutrons that are neutral and have no charge, protons with a positive charge andelectrons with a negative charge.An ion is an entity or a group of atoms with a positive or negative charge such as the positively charged hydrogen ion H+ and thenegatively charged nitrate ion NO3-. Negatively charged ions are also...

Questions & Answers Question about acetate buffer and what happens when HCl is added to such a solutionDebra ask:How do I attack this problem?I want to compare the effect of adding 1mmol of HCL to 100 ml of 0.2M acetate buffer at two different starting pH's. (pKa of acetate buffer =4.7Initial pH = 4.7Initial pH = 5.7Thank youHi Debra,There is bo...