PDF library

Note: Discussions about the pdf documents are found in the 'Help & Discussions' section.

Inorganic chemistry subjects:

Equilibriums 1 : A tutorial about how [CO2], [HCO3-] and[CO32-] are calculated from Total Inorganic Carbon.
The pdf is here

Ionic Strength 1 : An introduction about Ionic Strength with a simple calculation using H+ as an example.
The pdf is here

pKa and Ka : An introduction to the concept of Ka and pKa values -their definition, how they are used and a simple example.
The pdf is here

NaHCO3 dissolved : An introduction to what happens to pH when NaHCO3 dissolves.This site included excel spreadsheets showing the calculations.
The pdf is here

Buffers : A short introduction to buffers.
The pdf is here

Answers to questions in the Help & Discussion section or blog:

A question about adding the effect on pH by adding hydrochloride acid (HCl) to an acetate buffer isanswered here.

pdf's pending

An explanation on how the concentration of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), HSO4- and sulfate (SO42-) is calculatedis found here.

Chemistry resources:

If you have some chemistry notes you would like to share I will be happy to post them here.

PDF library

Acids and bases - Broensted-Lowry definition

Acids and bases - Broensted-Lowry definition A more fundamental definition of acids and bases than the one provided on the index page was given by the Danish chemists Johannes Broensted. The definitions are:A Broensted acid is a proton doner.A Broensted base is a proton acceptor. The English chemist, Thomas Lowry, proposed exactly the same at roug...

Buffers and Equilibriums

Buffers and Equilibriums As shortly explained in the section about how to calculate pH in a solution of dissolved NaHCO3, a buffer has the capability of keeping pH withina certain and narrow range even if an excess of hydrogen ions H+ or hydroxide ions OH- are added. In this particular page I will elaborate a bit on why buffers actually have the ca...

Ions and compounds

Ions and compounds Atoms are made up of neutrons that are neutral and have no charge, protons with a positive charge andelectrons with a negative charge.An ion is an entity or a group of atoms with a positive or negative charge such as the positively charged hydrogen ion H+ and thenegatively charged nitrate ion NO3-. Negatively charged ions are also...

An introduction to Ionic Strength

An introduction to Ionic Strength Background To quantify the effect of inter-ionic interactions, such as molecular attraction and repelling, one has to have a `parameter` describing themagnitude of these forces and how they alter the way certain calculation are done. Topic: Equilibriums The pH s...